The Essential Cosmic Perspective (7th Edition)

By Jeffrey O. Bennett, Nicholas Schneider, Mark Voit

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Bankruptcy three The technology of Astronomy seventy one Hallmarks of technology Seeks motives for saw phenomena that count completely on traditional reasons. Progresses via production and trying out of types of nature that designate the observations as easily as attainable. technology Makes testable predictions approximately normal phenomena. If predictions don't believe observations, version has to be revised or deserted. determine three. 21 Hallmarks of technology. him to the fitting basic notion, he erred within the specifics simply because he nonetheless held Plato’s historic trust that heavenly movement needs to be in ideal circles. provided that the idealized scientific process is a very simplistic characterization of technological know-how, how will we inform what's technology and what's no longer? to respond to this query, we needs to glance a bit deeper on the distinguishing features of scientific pondering. Hallmarks of technological know-how a method to define scientific pondering is to record the factors that scientists use once they pass judgement on competing types of nature. Historians and philosophers of technological know-how have tested (and proceed to ascertain) this factor in nice intensity, and varied specialists exhibit assorted viewpoints at the information. however, every little thing we now deliberate to be technological know-how stocks the next 3 easy features, which we'll discuss with because the “hallmarks” of technological know-how (Figure three. 21): • sleek technology seeks reasons for saw phenomena that count exclusively on usual motives. • technological know-how progresses during the production and trying out of types of nature that specify the observations as easily as attainable. • A scientific version needs to make testable predictions approximately usual phenomena that might strength us to revise or abandon the version if the predictions don't consider observations. each one of those hallmarks is eviScience seeks to give an explanation for saw dent within the tale of the Copernican phenomena utilizing testable versions of revolution. The first indicates up within the nature that designate the observations as approach Tycho’s cautious measurements of easily as attainable. planetary movement prompted Kepler to return up with a greater reason for these motions. the second one is obvious within the method a number of competing versions have been in comparison and validated, so much particularly these of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Kepler. We see the 3rd within the incontrovertible fact that each one version can make distinctive predictions in regards to the destiny motions of the sunlight, Moon, planets, and stars in our sky. while a model’s predictions failed, the version used to be modified or finally discarded. Kepler’s version received recognition largely simply because its predictions have been quite a bit higher than these of thePtolemaic version in matching Tycho’s observations. determine three. 22 (pages 74–75) summarizes the Copernican revolution and the way it illustrates the hallmarks of technological know-how. Occam’s Razor The criterion of simplicity within the moment hallmark merits extra clarification. do not forget that the unique version of Copernicus didn't fit the information notably larger than Ptolemy’s version. If scientists had judged Copernicus’s version completely at the accuracy of its predictions, they could have rejected it instantly.

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